Australian Towns & Cities
New South Wales: Newcastle
Incorporating photos and Information from Michael Greenslade's former Australian Towns, Cities and Highways site

Newcastle, New South Wales' second largest city and the seventh largest in Australia is located at the mouth of the Hunter River.

Established in 1804 after coal deposits were found by land explorers, the area was chosen as a convict settlement due to its initial isolation and from the ability to work prisoners. The town remained small until settlers eventually moved north from Sydney forcing the convict settlement to move further north to Port Macquarie. At this time, an official township site was surveyed and growth was strong as people flocked to work in the mines which eventually built up the town into an importance service centre for the Hunter region.

In 1911, BHP chose Newcastle for its steel works and the plant soon became the city's chief industry as coal mining operations dwindled. At this time, the port was expanded to facilitate ship building and greater capacity for exports. But as a result of the winding up of the steel industry early in the 21st century, other industries such as manufacturing, retail and tourism have become more prominent.

The city itself is quite attractive - set amongst a series of rolling hills, expansive surf beaches and headlands to the east with the Hunter River forming the northern extremity, Newcastle is filled with 19th century architecture as a result of strong growth from the 1850's. Many of the original buildings remain and blend in well with the modern buildings amongst the narrow and, at times steep CBD. Highlights in the area include: Nobbys Head & Fort Scratchley Maritime Museum (2km east); Queens Wharf precinct; Newcastle and Bar Beaches (2km south); Lookouts from The Obelisk & Shepherds Hill; Lake Macquarie (20km south-east) and King Edward, Civic & Foreshore Parks.


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Preview: Description:
NEW Newcastle Beach:
Northeasterly view around Newcastle Beach, August 2011.

Image © Paul Rands

NEW Newcastle Beach:
Southwesterly view around Newcastle Beach, August 2011.

Image © Paul Rands

NEW Newcastle Beach:
Southwesterly view around Newcastle Beach, August 2011.

Image © Paul Rands

1 Australian Bureau of Statistics, 2016 Census Quickstats

Last updated: 10-Dec-2020 12:40

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